There are clear and logical links between speaking the local language and participation in employment, education and wider society all of which impact on an individual's health.
Often when refugees arrive in New Zealand their English language skills are quite poor. Migrants generally have a higher level of English language skills as they need to meet certainly measures for immigration purposes, and this varies with country of origin. In families with children often the children learn English much quicker especially as they are immersed in the language more through school. This often means they take on a more supportive role within their families often interpreting and assisting adults.
Read the full issue summary for english as a second language [PDF] - updated September 2016.